Basic knowledge of fiber optic transceivers

Fiber-optic transceiver is an indispensable device in network data transmission. What is a fiber-optic transceiver and what is the composition of a fiber-optic transceiver? What role does a fiber-optic transceiver play in data transmission?

The fiber optic transceiver includes three basic functional modules: photoelectric medium conversion chip, optical signal interface (optical transceiver module) and electrical signal interface (RJ45). If equipped with network management functions, it also includes network management information processing unit.

A fiber optic transceiver is an Ethernet transmission media conversion unit that exchanges short-distance twisted-pair electrical signals and long-distance optical signals, and is also called a fiber converter in many places. The products are generally applied in the actual network environment where the Ethernet cable cannot cover and must use optical fiber to extend the transmission distance, and are usually located at the access layer application of the broadband metropolitan area network. At the same time, they help connect the last kilometer of optical fiber to the metropolitan area. The network and the outer network have also played a huge role.

In some large-scale enterprises, when the network is built, the optical fiber is directly used to establish the backbone network for the transmission medium. The transmission medium of the internal LAN is generally a copper line. How to connect the LAN to the fiber backbone network? This requires switching between different ports, different lines, and different fibers and guarantees link quality. The emergence of optical transceivers converts twisted-pair electrical signals and optical signals to ensure smooth transmission of data packets between two networks, and at the same time extends the transmission distance of the network from 100 meters to more than 100 kilometers ( Single mode fiber).

What are the basic characteristics of fiber optic transceivers:

1. Completely transparent to the network protocol.

2. Provide ultra-low latency data transmission.

3. Supports an ultra-wide operating temperature range.

4. Using a dedicated ASIC chip to achieve data line speed forwarding. The programmable ASIC integrates multiple functions on a single chip, which has the advantages of simple design, high reliability, and low power consumption, which can make the device get higher performance and lower cost.

5. The network management device can provide functions such as network diagnosis, upgrade, status report, abnormal condition report and control, and can provide complete operation log and alarm log.

6. The rack-mountable device provides hot-swappable functionality for easy maintenance and continuous upgrades.

7. Support full transmission distance (0 to 120 kilometers).

8. The device uses a 1+1 power supply design to support an ultra-wide power supply voltage for power protection and automatic switching.

Fiber transceivers classification:

The variety of fiber optic transceivers varies according to the type of classification.

According to the nature of the optical fiber can be divided into multimode fiber optic transceivers and single mode fiber optic transceivers. Because of the use of different fibers, the transceivers can transmit different distances. Multi-mode transceivers typically have transmission distances of 2 to 5 kilometers, while single-mode transceivers can cover distances of 20 to 120 kilometers.

According to the required fiber can be divided into single-fiber optical transceiver: receive and send data transmitted on a fiber; double-fiber optical transceiver: receive and send data transmitted on a pair of optical fiber.

According to the level of work / rate, can be divided into single 10M, 100M fiber optic transceivers, 10/100M adaptive fiber optic transceivers and 1000M fiber optic transceivers. According to the structure, it can be divided into desktop (stand-alone) fiber optic transceivers and rack-type fiber optic transceivers. Desktop fiber optic transceivers are suitable for individual users, such as meeting the uplink of a single switch in a corridor. Rack-mount (modular) fiber optic transceivers are suitable for multi-user aggregation. For example, the center room of a cell must meet the uplink of all switches in the cell. According to network management, it can be divided into network management fiber transceivers and non-network management fiber transceivers.

According to the management type, it can be divided into non-managed Ethernet optical fiber transceivers: plug and play, and the electrical port working mode is set through the hardware dial switch. Managed Ethernet Fiber Transceivers: Supports carrier-class network management Power supply types can be divided into built-in power Optical transceivers: built-in switching power supply for carrier-class power; external power supply fiber transceiver: external transformer power supply is mostly used in civilian equipment. The former has the advantages of being able to support an ultra-wide power supply voltage, better achieving regulation, filtering, and power protection of equipment, and reducing external failure points caused by mechanical contact; the latter has the advantages of compact size and low cost.

According to the mode of work, the full duplex method refers to when data is transmitted and received and is diverted and transmitted by two different transmission lines respectively, both parties of the communication can perform sending and receiving operations at the same time. It is full-duplex, full-duplex mode does not need to switch direction, so there is no time delay caused by the switching operation;

The half duplex method refers to using the same transmission line to perform both reception and transmission. Although data can be transmitted in both directions, both communication parties cannot send and receive data at the same time. Such a transmission mode is half duplex.

In the half-duplex mode, the transmitters and receivers at each end of the communication system are switched to the communication line through the receiving/sending switch to switch the direction. Therefore, a time delay occurs.

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