Among the fertilizers applied to farmland, the effective utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer is the lowest. The main reason is that the active component of phosphate fertilizer (ie, water-soluble phosphate fertilizer) is easily converted into insoluble state in the soil and fixed, its fixed speed and morphology, and soil pH. (ie pH), organic matter content, and the mobility of phosphorus in the soil. However, after the phosphorus is fixed in the soil to form a poorly soluble state, under suitable conditions (such as microbes), it can be converted into quick-acting phosphorus, which shows the long-term effect of phosphorus supply to phosphorus. How to use these characteristics of phosphate fertilizer to improve the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer, usually take the following comprehensive measures: 1. Based on basic application, avoid low-temperature application of phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer (especially calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer) after being applied to the soil for a long time ( For more than half a year, its effectiveness is on the rise. Therefore, phosphate fertilizer should generally be used as a base fertilizer, and try to avoid topdressing. In addition, the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer depends on the soil and the conditions of the crop itself, and is also affected by the temperature conditions. When the temperature is below 12 degrees Celsius, the absorption and utilization rate of various nutrients in the crops are decreasing, among which the decline The large amount is phosphorus (up to 50% or more). Therefore, the application of phosphate fertilizer should be avoided as much as possible during the low temperature period. 2, the application of organic fertilizer, strengthen the soil pH adjustment of the soil value of less than 6 is slightly acidic, phosphorus easy to combine with iron, aluminum to form insoluble ferric phosphate, aluminum phosphate. Soils with a pH greater than 7.5 are alkaline, and phosphorus easily combines with calcium to form insoluble calcium phosphate. In neutral soils with a pH between 6 and 7.5, phosphorus is most effective. Therefore, in order to improve the effective utilization of phosphate fertilizer, we must first pay attention to the adjustment of soil pH, the method is to improve the buffer performance of soil (maintaining the ability of soil acid-base reaction is relatively stable), and the buffer performance of soil is closely related to the content of soil humus. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the content of soil humus. Since soil humus is mainly derived from organic matter, the application of organic fertilizer is a way to increase the content of soil organic matter. It is necessary to vigorously promote the application of multiple farms and soil fertilizers and various green manures. 3. Mixed application with organic fertilizer to reduce the mixed application of soil fixed phosphate and organic fertilizer, which can reduce soil fixation. First, avoid direct contact between phosphorus and soil, thereby reducing the way phosphorus is fixed by soil; During the decomposition process, the organic acid produced by the organic matter can combine with iron and aluminum in the soil to form a stable state compound, which reduces the chance of the combination of soluble phosphorus and iron, aluminum, etc., and reduces the fixed amount of insoluble phosphorus. Improve the absorption and utilization of phosphorus by crops. 4. The study of concentrated application shows that the mobility of phosphorus in the soil is very small, that is, the phosphate fertilizer is not easy to leaching in the soil. Taking advantage of this characteristic of phosphorus, it is generally adopted by means of acupoint application or ditch application (not suitable for application), and the phosphate fertilizer should be applied to the vicinity of the crop roots in order to facilitate the absorption of the crop and increase the utilization rate of phosphorus. For soils with strong fertility, the use of solid phosphorus can be converted into quick-acting phosphorus in the soil. It is also possible to apply the phosphate fertilizer (even the phosphate fertilizer applied in 2 or 3 years) in several applications. In this way, the phosphorus supply intensity of the soil can be increased, the long-term phosphorus supply can be fully utilized, and the fertilization labor can be saved.
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