Abstract In recent years, as a livelihood issue closely related to the common people, the topic of "taxation" has always been a hot topic. Last year, there were many hot topics around "taxes", such as "Labor Report...In recent years, as a livelihood issue closely related to the common people, the topic of "taxes" has always been a hot topic. Last year, there were a number of hot topics surrounding â€œtaxesâ€. For example, â€œthe personal income tax for labor compensation has not changed in 36 years, and the 800-yuan starting point has squeezed the internâ€. â€œThe annual income of more than 120,000 yuan is determined to be a high-income tax adjustment. Focus" and so on.
At the National Financial Work Conference held recently, the Minister of Finance Xiao Jie mentioned in the introduction of several major work projects this year that it is necessary to further promote the reform of the fiscal and taxation system, accelerate the construction of modern fiscal systems, and study and promote the integration of comprehensive and classified individuals. Income tax reform.
As an important annual meeting of the financial system, the work proposed in the National Financial Work Conference will become the key project of the Ministry of Finance this year. The signal released by Xiao Jie will undoubtedly make people look forward to the introduction of the tax reform plan.
Yesterday, experts in the fiscal and taxation law told the Beijing News that the personal income tax reform plan announced this year is not a big problem, but it should be submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for consideration at the earliest in April.
With the approach of the National "Two Sessions" this year, when the tax plan will be introduced and whether the threshold will be raised, it will be concerned.
Focus 1: When will the tax reform plan be released?
It must be approved by the State Council executive meeting and then submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for deliberation.
In March last year, the former Minister of the Ministry of Finance Lou Jiwei said at a press conference held at the Fourth Session of the 12th National People's Congress that the tax reform plan has been submitted to the State Council, in accordance with the planning of the National People's Congress and the requirements of the State Council, this year (2016) The draft of the Individual Income Tax Law, which combines comprehensive and classified, will be submitted to the National People's Congress for deliberation. However, as of the end of 2016, there is no news about the National People's Congress reviewing the draft tax law.
At the end of last year, the Economic Information Daily reported that the tax reform is speeding up and the plan is expected to be released in the first half of next year (2017). In this regard, Liu Jianwen, president of the China Finance and Taxation Law Research Association and director of the Center for Financial and Economic Law of Peking University, believes that the introduction of a tax reform plan in 2017 should be expected. "But from a procedural point of view, it needs to be submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for deliberation after it has been approved by the State Council executive meeting. It is expected to arrive in April at the earliest."
In fact, the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee held in 2013 has already clarified the general direction of tax reform: gradually establish a personal income tax system that combines comprehensive and classified. The "Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Comprehensively Deepening Reform of Some Major Issues" proposed to establish a personal income and property information system, protect legitimate income, regulate excessive income, clean up and regulate hidden income, ban illegal income, and increase income of low-income people. We will increase the proportion of middle-income people, strive to narrow the income distribution gap between urban and rural areas, regions, and industries, and gradually form an olive-type distribution pattern.
In accordance with the general principle of â€œincreasing, expanding and upgradingâ€, a new taxation system combining â€œintegration and classificationâ€ was established. Under the new tax system, the comprehensive income deduction standard will be implemented instead of continuing to pay the salary standard. The part of the income will be included in the comprehensive, and the basic deduction and special deduction mechanism will be established, and the special deduction will be appropriately increased.
It is understood that at present, China's individual tax is implemented by a classified tax system. The 11 types of income, such as wages and salaries, labor remuneration, remuneration, dividends, and property leases, are deducted from different expenses and are levied at different rates. There is no special deduction.
Focus 2: Will the tax threshold increase?
Raising the threshold is no longer the focus of reform, the focus is on establishing a new tax system.
Regarding the tax reform, the first question people think of is the threshold. In the previous several tax reforms, raising the threshold has become the main reform content. Up to now, the tax threshold has been raised three times in 2006, 2008 and 2011, from 800 yuan to 3,500 yuan. Therefore, whether the tax threshold is ushered in the fourth increase is a concern.
The former Minister of Finance, Lou Jiwei, said at the National "Two Sessions" last year that it is unfair to simply raise the threshold. "A person's salary of 5,000 yuan can live a good life. If you still have to raise a child, or even have an old man who needs support, it is very difficult. Therefore, it is unfair to unify the standard itself. Under the salary income. Continuous improvement of the deduction standard is not a direction."
Liu Jianwen said that from the perspective of individual tax reform, raising the threshold is no longer the focus of reform. The key point should be the collection model. The following 11 categories should be combined into comprehensive income, and some of the classification income will be retained to become comprehensive and classified. Combined tax system.
Jiang Zhen, deputy researcher of the Taxation Research Office of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said that if there is a difference between the salary and salary exemption and the direction of individual tax reform, we should see that the tax reform is not exactly equal to the increase of the exemption. It has more rich content, such as the tax rate of wages and salaries, and now the tax rate is more high, up to 45%, which is particularly high for people with high salary and salary, such as those with innovative ability, will dampen the enthusiasm for innovation. What is important in the reform is to introduce a comprehensive system to ensure that the integration and classification are combined.
Focus 3: What are the special deductions that may be included?
Re-education spending may become the first choice, and the first home loan interest rate is also expected to be included in the option.
The special deduction is a "bright spot" in this tax reform. What matters will be included in the deduction? Lou Jiwei introduced the possible items in the National â€œTwo Sessionsâ€ last year: â€œDeduction of personal career development and re-education, such as the stage of raising a child, at the stage of compulsory education, high school, or university stage. Deductions should be given." In addition, factors such as raising two children and supporting the elderly may also be considered.
The Economic Information Daily reported that the re-education expenditure may become the first choice for special deductions, and the interest rate for the first home loan is also expected to be included. In the long run, according to the social supporting conditions and the perfection of the collection and management mechanism, household expenditures such as supporting the elderly and raising two children are also expected to be gradually included in the deduction.
Li Wanzhao, director of the Taxation Research Institute of the State Administration of Taxation, also pointed out in an interview with the media that the next step would be to consider a part of education, housing loans, pensions and other expenses into deductions, which means that loans to buy houses, homes with elderly children, etc. Groups can benefit from it.
Jiang Zhen believes that from the academic point of view, the special deduction is to fully consider the necessary cost of personal life in the personal income tax deduction. Therefore, deduction should consider two points. One is the necessary principle, that is, to maintain the basic cost of living for human survival, such as education, Medical and so on; Second, the principle of fairness, the type of cost that each taxpayer faces. At present, it is not appropriate to levy on the basis of family. The family structure of the Chinese is more complicated. After the information conditions are mature, the optimization is discussed. The current conditions are still immature.
Liu Jianwen believes that the special deduction project is not too clear now. The reform should be a basic deduction plus special deduction. As for deducting which people are more concerned, they will generally consider housing loan interest, social security funds, raising two children, etc., which may all be considered. And discussion, after the program comes out, I will listen to everyone's opinions.
How will the tax reform affect people in various income groups? Jiang Zhen believes that after the reform, the tax burden of different groups will rise and rise. The reform will appropriately raise the tax burden of high-income groups and narrow the income gap. This is also the function and goal of the future tax reform.
Liu Jianwen believes that the principle of the tax reform is to "increase, expand, and increase", and to adjust the redistribution of property income through reforms to make the tax system more fair. The tax burden of high-income earners may increase appropriately, middle-income earners will be flat, and the tax burden of low-income earners is likely to decrease.
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